History of Ellerbe, North Carolina
Native American History
One of the best archaeological records of
the movement of a people in the southeast is that of the Pee Dee
culture. It moved into the upper Pee Dee River valley with household
and baggage forcing the Uwharrie descendants into the hills of the
Piedmont. They established large villages and cultivated large fields.
They were mature agriculturalists. Yet, they never crossed the narrows
of the Yadkin and after less than five generations of warfare, they
left the region to return to the coast. They contributed nothing in the
indigenous cultures except strife and received the same in return.
Their period of success is stratigraphically sealed between the
deposits of the dispossessed Uwharrie people and those of the historic
Siouan tribes who finally forced their withdrawal. (Dr. Joffre Coe,
Beginnings of the Town of Ellerbe
1781 a road built from General Nathaniel Greene's encampment at Hicks
Creek, South Carolina to Guilford Courthouse (near Greensboro) was
completed. It intersected with a previously built road running from the
Yadkin River at Swallow Ford to Crosscreek (now Fayetteville).
People began to meet at this intersection to trade and socialize. The crossroads was first called Hurricane.
Matthew Dockery opened a store at the crossroads in 1793. Soon after,
Richard Adams bought 75 acres of land near the store and started the
Old Scotch Fair. A Hundreds of people from Richmond and
surrounding counties gathered semi-annually for festivities. The name Hurricane gave way to Fairgrounds.
In 1850 Colonel W. T. Ellerbe acquired 1,077 acres of land which
included the mineral springs and the area previously used for the fair.
It is from Colonel Ellerbe that the town took its name when it was
incorporated in 1911.
Mr. T. C. Leak purchased the land
containing the mineral springs from Colonel Ellerbe. Later his son, Tom
C. Leak, built a 30-room hotel, dance pavilion, and several cottages.
The site was called The Ellerbe Springs Hotel. It became well known as a
popular gathering place for people who came to rest, escape the
malaria and yellow fever of the lowlands, and cure their ailments by
drinking the mineral water from the springs. In the late 1800's an
academy, a post office, and a Presbyterian Church were located near the
Ellerbe Springs Hotel. Having had a variety of owners and uses through
the years, the property was developed again in 1967 as a recreation
facility with camping area. The hotel was completely renovated and
a restaurant was added. The Ellerbe
Springs Inn and Restaurant offers well-appointed rooms, a bridal suite, and private meeting space for groups. It was featured in Our State Magazine in 2007.
a one-room school (the Bostick School) had existed in Ellerbe prior to
1917, the citizens of Ellerbe petitioned the School Board to establish a
high school for their children that year. In 1919 a six-room brick
school was erected on the present Ellerbe Junior High School site.
Ellerbe School opened for the 1920-1921 school year with thirteen
students. Mr. Morris Randolph Mitchell was the first principal. He also
worked with the black citizens in the community to establish the first
consolidated black school in the area. By 1923, Ellerbe School had
500 students. Mr. Mitchell determined to give the students as much
experience as possible and began to implement learning by doing
projects. He was followed by Mr. Richard F. Little who continued to
implement and publicize the learning by doing€¯ activities at the school.
In the 1930's articles appeared in educational journals; when Clare
Louise Burke allowed her book of poetry,
Bowl of Petunias, to be printed by Ellerbe School Press, the reviews brought a great deal of attention to Ellerbe School. The New York Times, Chicago Tribune, The State Magazine, and
Reader's Digest were among the publications featuring Ellerbe
School's projects and philosophy.
It is reported that in 1939 more than
4800 visitors came. In 1967-68 the Hamlet City Schools, the Rockingham
City Schools, and the Richmond County Schools (including Ellerbe) were
consolidated. The former Ellerbe High School building now houses the
Ellerbe Junior High School and the former Mineral Springs Colored
School houses the Ellerbe Primary School.
In 2007 the Rankin Museum of American Heritage
celebrated its 20th anniversary. Founded by a gift of a core
collection by Dr. and Mrs. P. R. Rankin, the museum now displays
American artifacts from North and South America, artifacts
related to local, state, and southern history, antique pottery and
tools, Civil War memorabilia, and animal mounts from North America,
Central America, and Africa. Of special interest is a turpentine
distillery from 1880 that was operated in Richmond County. One of the
largest known collections of Native American artifacts from the
Southeast is also on display. The museum is open six days weekly.
Groups may call for reservations.
Opened in 1978, the Kemp Memorial Library
was started with a gift to the town by J. T. and Arina Sugg in memory of their
daughter, Mary Kemp Hopke, and is a part of the Sandhills Regional
Library System. It offers computer access, has a large genealogy
section, and provides best sellers as well as use of interlibrary
loan. It has a large collection of children's books and
references. The library also provides a meeting room for
community use and has an active "Friends of the Library" group.